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    Read the passage carefully and select the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.

    Besides affecting human health, air pollution is also causing malnutrition in trees by harming a fungi that is important for providing mineral nutrients to tree roots. Mycorrhizal fungi is hosted by the trees in their roots to receive nutrients from the soil. These fungi provide essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from soil in exchange for carbon from the tree. This plant-fungal symbiotic relationship is crucial for the health of the tree. However, high levels of the nutrition elements like nitrogen and phosphorus in the mycorrhizae changes them to act as pollutants rather than nutrients.
    The signs of malnutrition can be seen in the form of discoloured leaves and excessive falling of leaves. There is an alarming trend of tree malnutrition across Europe, which leaves forests vulnerable to pests, disease and climate change. The researchers noted that ecosystem changes can negatively affect tree health. Further, they found that the characteristics of the tree — species and nutrient status — and the local environmental conditions like the atmospheric pollution and soil variables were the most important predictors of which species of mycorrhizae fungi would be present and their numbers. These also proved to have a large impact on the fungi.

    Mycorrhizae changes high levels of nutrition elements to act as ______ rather than nutrients.

    Options :-

    1. soil variable
    2. minerals
    3. gargabe
    4. pollutants
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