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    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

    The elimination of war, violence, and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of the global community. Yet that objective remains unachieved. War-related health threats are a rising concern as the number of people forced to flee their homes due to violent conflict has currently exceeded 51 million, the highest levels since the Second World War. This includes both internally displaced persons and refugees. Half of these are children. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres, has pointed out that humanitarian efforts cannot quell this magnitude of human suffering: “We are seeing here the immense costs of not ending wars, of failing to resolve or prevent conflict.” Right to life in peace is an essential condition for the realization of the right to health. As such, the path toward international recognition of the right to life in peace is worthy of the attention and support of health professionals. First, we discuss the draft Declaration on the Right to Life in Peace that is currently being advanced within the UN Human Rights Council (HRC). We then refer briefly to the approach proposed by the Chairperson-Rapporteur of the Open-Ended Working Group on the right to life in peace in pursuit of the necessary consensus among different stakeholders on this topic. Next, we analyze the notion of violence as a public health problem, focusing on collective violence in particular. Barriers to realization of the right to health in a context of direct, structural, and cultural violence will be addressed. We discuss the relationship between the rights to life, health, and peace and analyze human dignity as a foundational core of these rights. Finally, we address the role health professionals play in the promotion of peace, including the need for cultural transformation. The HRC has been working on the “Promotion of the Right to Peace” since 2008. This proposed declaration has been inspired by previous resolutions on this issue approved by the UN General Assembly and the former UN Commission on Human Rights, particularly the General Assembly Resolutions on the “Declaration on the Preparation of Societies for Life in Peace” in 1978 and the “Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace” in 1984. In 2010, the HRC adopted a resolution asking the HRC Advisory Committee to prepare a draft declaration on the right of peoples to peace, in consultation with relevant stakeholders.

    In 2012, the HRC established an Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) “with the mandate of progressively negotiating a draft UN Declaration on the Right to Peace, on the basis of the draft submitted by the Advisory Committee, and without prejudging relevant past, present and future views and proposals.” The OEWG is composed of representatives from States, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders. During its first session, the OEWG concluded that the existence of a right to peace was recognized by some governmental delegations and other stakeholders, who argued that some soft-law instruments already acknowledge this right. However, other stakeholders insisted that a right to peace does not exist under international law. From their perspective, peace is not a stand-alone human right, but the consequence of the full realization of all human rights. In June 2013, the HRC adopted a resolution asking the Chairperson-Rapporteur of the OEWG to prepare a new text on the right to peace and to present it prior to the second session of the working group for further discussion. The revised text was to be based on the OEWG’s first session along with informal intersessional consultations. Following this, extensive consultations took place with stakeholder representatives worldwide, culminating in a new approach and draft Declaration.

    The new approach is based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace, and development, the notion of human dignity, the role of women in building peace, and the importance of prevention of armed conflicts in accordance with the UN Charter and other UN resolutions and international law. The Declaration not only recalls the linkage between the right to life and peace, but it also explicates and strengthens the right to life in connection to peace, human rights, and development. The approach was also inspired by the values and principles contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) Constitution and further elaborated in the international health legal system. It promotes the use of existing rights already consolidated in international law. The second session of the OEWG in 2014 had broad dialogue among relevant stakeholders including representatives of governments, regional groups, and civil society. The Chairperson Rapporteur proposed to further refine the declaration text through input from that meeting, along with additional stakeholder consultations, and the HRC later passed a resolution to this effect with the goal of finalizing the Declaration in 2015.The WHO was incepted with the spirit of promoting the health of all peoples and recognizes in the Preamble of its Constitution that health and peace are interrelated notions, stating that, “the health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States.” Violence has devastating consequences on human health, affecting both combatants and civilians. While some of the morbidity and mortality relates to the direct effects of violence, much of the civilian health impact is due to indirect consequences such as displacement and limited access to food, clean water, and health care. Even after a conflict has resolved, the affected population frequently suffers repercussions of physical and mental trauma.

    Health care services are often constrained by disrupted infrastructure. Moreover, the spending on military operations may deplete funding for provision of health services. It is important to note that there are many other forms of violence that impact human health. These include abuse of children, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, elder abuse, self-directed violence, and youth violence. Indeed, homicide is the third-largest cause of death among young people aged 15-24 in the US. In addition to the direct effects of violence, exposure to violence during childhood is linked with chronic illness, such as asthma, and poorer health later in life.
    What according to the author indirectly affects civilian health?

    Options :-

    1. Restricted access to food, clean water and proper medical attention.
    2. Excessive increase in the price of food items.
    3. Lack of proper governance.
    4. The negative influence of cultural violence.
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