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     EduGorilla 
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    In emphasizing the possible role of values and norms in individual behaviour, it is not my intention to argue that most people are moved by their sense of justice than by their prudential and material concerns. Far from it. In making predictions of behaviour—whether in personal work, private business or public services— it is important to avoid the error of assuming that people are peculiarly virtuous and desperately keen to be just. Indeed many well-meant planning exercises in the past have come to grief through overreliance on selfless individual conduct. In recognizing the role of broader values, we must not fail to note the extensive role of the intelligent self-seeking, as well as of gross cupidity and greed.
    It is a question of having a balance in our behavioral assumptions. We must not fall for the “high-minded sentimentality” of presuming that everyone is intensely moral and value-driven. Nor must we replace that unreal assumption by the equally unreal opposite assumption—what can be called “low-minded sentimentality”. This presumption, which some economists seem to prefer, takes the form of assuming that we are not at all influence by values (only by crude considerations of personal advantages). Whether we deal with “work ethics”, or “business morality,” or “corruption,” or “public responsibility,” or “environmental values,” or “gender equity,” or ideas of “the right family size,” we have to take note of the variations—and changeability—in priorities and norms. In analyzing issues of efficiency and equity, or the removal of poverty and subjugation, the role of values cannot but be crucial.

    According to the passage what does author mean by “extensive role of intelligent self-seeking” in guiding individual behaviour?

    Options :-

    1. That people are motivated by their selfinterest in (their actions.

    2. That people are greedy and should be accounted as such in any analysis.

    3. That people are intelligent enough to pursue their self interest and not dwell on abstract values.

    4. That people keep their needs and priorities in mind in making their choices.

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