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    In emphasizing the possible role of values and norms in individual behaviour, it is not my intention to argue that most people are moved by their sense of justice than by their prudential and material concerns. Far from it. In making predictions of behaviour—whether in personal work, private business or public services— it is important to avoid the error of assuming that people are peculiarly virtuous and desperately keen to be just. Indeed many well-meant planning exercises in the past have come to grief through overreliance on selfless individual conduct. In recognizing the role of broader values, we must not fail to note the extensive role of the intelligent self-seeking, as well as of gross cupidity and greed.
    It is a question of having a balance in our behavioral assumptions. We must not fall for the “high-minded sentimentality” of presuming that everyone is intensely moral and value-driven. Nor must we replace that unreal assumption by the equally unreal opposite assumption—what can be called “low-minded sentimentality”. This presumption, which some economists seem to prefer, takes the form of assuming that we are not at all influence by values (only by crude considerations of personal advantages). Whether we deal with “work ethics”, or “business morality,” or “corruption,” or “public responsibility,” or “environmental values,” or “gender equity,” or ideas of “the right family size,” we have to take note of the variations—and changeability—in priorities and norms. In analyzing issues of efficiency and equity, or the removal of poverty and subjugation, the role of values cannot but be crucial.

    According to the passage, which of the
    following best describes author’s views on role
    of values and norms in individual behaviour? 

    Options :-

    1. Some people are guided by their values and norms in individual behaviour and some are not.

    2. Most people are normally guided by their self-interests and role of values and norms is only secondary.

    3. Role of values and norms in individual behavior are not uniform but keep on changing.

    4. Role of values and norms in individual behavior are as important as their self interests.

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