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     EduGorilla 
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    Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the following question.

    All historians are interpreters of text if they be private letters, Government records or parish birthlists or whatever. For most kinds of historians, these are only the necessary means to understanding something other than the texts themselves, such as a political action or a historical trend, whereas for the intellectual historian, a full understanding of his chosen texts is itself the aim of his enquiries. Of course, the intellectual history is particularly prone to draw on the focus of other disciplines that are habitually interpreting texts for purposes of their own, probing the reasoning that ostensibly connects premises and conclusions. Furthermore, the boundaries with adjacent subdisciplines are shifting and indistinct, the history of art and science both claim a certain autonomy, partly just because they require specialised technical skills. Both can also be seen as part of a wider intellectual history, as is evident when one considers. For example, the common stock of knowledge about cosmological beliefs or moral ideals of a period.

    Like all historians, the intellectual historian is a consumer rather than a producer of ‘methods’. His distinctiveness lies in which aspect of the past he is trying to illuminate, not in having exclusive possession of either a corpus of evidence or a body of techniques. That being said, it does seem that the label ‘intellectual history’ attracts a disproportionate share of misunderstanding.

    It is alleged that intellectual history is the history of something that never really mattered. The long dominance of the historical profession by political historians bred a kind of philistinism, an unspoken belief that power and its exercise was ‘what mattered’. The prejudice was reinforced by the assertion that political action was never really the outcome of principles or ideas that were ‘more flapdoodle’. The legacy of this precept is still discernible in the tendency to require ideas to have ‘licensed’ the political class before they can be deemed worthy of intellectual attention, as if there were some reasons why the history of art or science, of philosophy or literature, were somehow of interest and significance than the history of Parties or Parliaments. Perhaps in recent years, the mirror-image of this philistinism has been more common in the claim that ideas of any one systematic expression or sophistication do not matter, as if they were only held by a minority.


    Knowledge of cosmological beliefs or moral ideas of a period can be drawn as a part of

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    1. literary criticism
    2. history of science
    3. history of philosophy
    4. intellectual history
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