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    Directions for questions: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

    We must question the assumption that for profit health care institutions are obligated to provide free care for people who cannot afford to pay for it. Supermarkets, after all, are not expected to donate food to the hungry, and real estate developers are not expected to let people live rent-free in their housing. Yet food and housing, like health care, are necessities. If there is a basic right to health care, it is reasonable to think there are such rights to food and shelter. Whose obligation is it to secure adequate health care for those without it? There are several reasons to believe that the obligation rests with the federal government. First, the obligation to secure a just distribution of benefits and burdens across society is a general societal obligation. Second, the federal government is the institution society employs to meet society-wide distributive requirements. It has the capacities to finance a hugely expensive program for guaranteed adequate health care. The government’s taxing power also allows the burden of financing health care to be spread across society and not to depend on the vagaries of how wealthy or poor a state or local area may be. The government also has the power to coordinate health care programs across local and state boundaries.

    This would reduce inefficiencies that allow people to fall between the cracks of the patchwork of local and state programs, and ensure that there are not great differences in the minimum of health care guaranteed to all in different locales. If we are one society, then the level of health care needed for all citizens should not vary in different areas because of political and economic contingencies. It is worth noting that food stamp programs and housing subsidies, also aimed at basic necessities, similarly are largely a federal responsibility. These are reasons for the federal government having the obligation to guarantee access to health care. It could provide this care itself, or it could supply vouchers to be used in the health care marketplace. How access should be secured—and to what extent market mechanisms ought to be utilized—is a separate question.

    The author’s primary concern in the passage is to discuss

    Options :-

    1. the level of expenditures required to ensure access to health care for a
    2. measures that might be enacted to carry out a program of subsidized health care
    3. differences among states and localities in the provision of basic social services
    4. who bears the obligation for assuring adequate health services for those who lack it
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