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    Direction: Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of these.

    Car-pooling is recognized as an alternative to reduce congestion and pollution on the roads. In fact, leading cities give preference on road occupancy and public parking to carpoolers, and recognize organizations whose employees do car-pooling. However, organizations seeking to promote car-pooling are unsure about what efforts will realize the intended benefits. Often, car-pooling is confused with ad-hoc sharing of rides, with the effect that incentives of participants are not aligned with some treating it as a shuttle service and others as an unnecessary drag on their time and resources, scuttling the sustainability of car-pooling in that organization.
    The money one saves from reduced fuel usage is one of the best reasons to carpool. Depending on the size of the carpool and distance of the commute, one could save hundreds or thousands of rupees every year. But carpooling doesn’t just benefit one’s wallet; it can positively affect the environment and the traffic in one’s area, and it can add usable time to one’s day. Carpooling reduces one’s transportation emissions number almost by half. Many major metropolitan areas have specially designated carpool lanes that are reserved for vehicles with two or more passengers. These lanes are typically less congested than typical freeway lanes, which means your commute time could be reduced considerably if you travel with co-workers. Riding in a carpool allows one to use the commute time effectively instead of having to concentrate solely on driving. As more people take part in carpooling programs or organize carpools within their workplaces, overall traffic congestion will decrease, which reduces fuel consumption, commute time, and the cost of road repairs.
    But just like every other concept, carpooling also has its disadvantages. Carpooling requires everyone in the vehicle to be ready to leave at the same time which means that one cannot always leave when one is ready. There are also no quiet moments and even if socialization is good, quality ‘alone-time’ is also required. In an effort to raise money, some urban centres are converting carpooling lanes into toll lanes or express lanes. This means to access the faster lane, there may be added charges to the commute to make it faster. Even though there are fewer vehicles on the road, there are still environmental consequences that may occur from the use of a vehicle for carpooling. Even electric vehicles may be powered by energy that was generated by fossil fuels. Although this key point may not be relevant for all, it does have a bearing on some discussions.
    The pros and cons of carpooling show some definite advantages. It may not be the best solution for everyone, especially those who prefer to have some time on their own between their personal and professional responsibilities. If the negatives can be carefully managed, however, it could be the transportation solution for everyone.
    Which of the following statement is true about carpooling with reference to the given passage?

    Options :-

    1. Carpooling protects the environment by keeping the air, water and land cleaner.
    2. Carpooling is necessary for everyone.
    3. Carpooling can be far more stressful than simply commuting on your own.
    4. Carpooling (also car-sharing, ride-sharing and lift-sharing) is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car, and prevents the need for others to have to drive to a location themselves and includes the exchange of monetary benefits.
    5. Private car owners do not require a permit for carpooling in India (as long as the private car owner does not operate for 'hire or reward').
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