- 07/28/2019 at 9:11 am #1536020EduGorillaKeymasterSelect Question Language :
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
India ranks second after China in total population. Its population is growing 20% per decade, leading to problems that include food deficits, sanitation deterioration and pollution. Although economic growth numbers look promising, the living standards of most citizens are not changing. Over 30% are living below the international poverty line, and there are not enough jobs to change that condition. The food and nutrition deficit has created a 20% death rate due to malnutrition. Clean drinking water is in short supply, and severe water shortages are common. China and India are the two most egregious environmental polluters in the world. India uses coal, for 80% of its power requirements and it has been slow to transition to clean energy sources. New Delhi and other cities in India are among the most polluted in the world and car emissions in these urban areas are creating breathing and skin ailments.
India has not been able to improve its deteriorating infrastructure in business, education and health care. In business, a study found that China manufacturing is 1.5 times more efficient than India. Public transportation and roadways have not kept pace with population growth. The education infrastructure is backward, and over 280 million adults are illiterate. Many children do not attend school at all and instead begin working before reaching their teen years. India’s healthcare infrastructure is also abysmal, ranking 112th of 190 countries. More than 70% of the population has limited or no access to healthcare services.
The great Indian born writer Salman Rushdie once commented in regard to India’s corruption that “Indian democracy is one man, one bribe.” The problem costs India’s economy 6.3 percentage of GDP per year. A recent survey found that 60% of respondents point to corruption, bad business practices and delays as the biggest problems that entrepreneurs face, inhibiting growth of their businesses. The reasons for this damaging practice include competing government bureaucracies, a complex and opaque tax system and a lot of unclear laws and procedures. Corruption is also strengthened by poverty and lack of opportunity in the job market. The problem is immense and deeply ingrained in India’s culture. A solution is not imminent. India’s economic growth looked good on the surface in 2018. However, it could come to a crashing halt in 2019 if a recession or stock bear market slams the world. Even without those added burdens, no one can reasonably expect much progress in solving India’s deep-rooted economic problems in 2018. The solution timetable is very long and will consume many years of effort by more than one generation.
Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
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