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    Direction : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in the bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

    The occurrence of crime or people committing crimes is affected by many factors other than the exact cause of crime. A person’s nature is shaped by the way in which he gains experiences and learning of the world. According to criminologist Sutherland, criminal behavior is acquired. Numerous factors such as social, environmental along with the kind of upbringing and the situations in which a person is, influence the rate and level of crime. Human nature is developed in different ways depending on the type of environment and social conditions a person is in. The behavioral patterns and socialization traits a child picks up from the conditions he/she is in. Here, we can say that conditioning plays an important role in the development of moral and social values and formation of the basic nature or character of a person. The thinking and the situations a person faces, compels them to commit crimes. Just as poor people are compelled to steal driven by poverty or disloyalty in the same way, revenge compels people to commit murders.

    A child may be born with certain traits like intelligence, adventurousness, creativity. Nurturing a child will change the way he thinks which in turn will shape up his nature and character. The intelligence traits of a child can either be successfully bend towards acquiring academic skills or it may incline towards destructive acts. The environment which facilitates learning makes a deep impact on the experiences of a child. These experiences add to the learning process thereby shaping up the way in which a person thinks and feels

    Adolescents are a group that commit crimes most often and are affected by a number of institutions that add to the experiences and learning as well as shaping up the moral and social values of the group. There are inter related factors that directly influence an individual’s behaviors like family, school and peers. Likewise the media, public policy, economic status and cultural norms also shape the outlook of a person. The ecological niche inflicts the thinking of adolescents that consists of various social and environmental factors. Society and upbringing gives different experiences to an individual. A child is taught how to behave in a society and follow some moral code of conduct. The conditioning given to a child by the parents, and other institutions closely associate with the how the child forms the future behavior. The social behavior is guided by the socially accepted norms and positive and negative reinforcements a child receives on every act. Public opinion also matters since it influences a person to be good in the eyes of others.

    The terrorist attack of September 2001 can be termed as a hate crime. Hate crimes are termed as violent attacks directed towards a person or a group due to racial, ethnic, religious or gender biases. The hate crimes are purely committed by highly motivated people who are biased towards an ideology and do not foresee any reasoning. People committing hate crimes are either prejudiced or ignorant. In the terrorist attack of Sept 11, 2001 the militant group designed massive destruction of life and property by blasting the twin towers of world trade center. As a result, U.S not only faced immediate catastrophe but also a heavy resentment in the hearts of the people directly or indirectly harmed from the attacks. The resentment against terrorists resulted in change in thinking, outlook and human behavior. The bitterness after the attacks of 9/11, took the shape of revenge that negatively guided people to attack all Muslims and Arabs living in U.S.

    Which one of the following is the trait picked by a child that molds his nature in the early years of social conditioning, that affect his behavior when he grows up.

    Options :-

    1. Experience as he grows up in a unique social condition
    2. Social and environmental factors while growing up
    3. The behavioral patterns the child picks from the conditions prevailing when he grows up
    4. Socialization traits that the child picks up while growing up in a particular society
    5. None of these
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