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    Biomass as fuel for power, heat, and transport has the  highest mitigation potential of all renewable sources. It  comes from agriculture and forest residues as well as    from energy crops. The biggest challenge in using  biomass residues is a long-term reliable supply delivered  to the power plant at reasonable costs; the key problems  are logistical constraints and the costs of fuel collection.  Energy crops, if not managed properly, compete with  food production and may have undesirable impacts on  food prices. Biomass production is also sensitive to the  physical impacts of a changing climate.  Projections of the future role of biomass are  probably overestimated, given the limits to the  sustainable biomass supply, unless breakthrough  technologies substantially increase productivity. Climate  -energy models project that biomass use could increase  nearly four-fold to around 150 – 200 exajoules, almost a  quarter of world primary energy in 2050. However the  maximum sustainable technical potential of biomass  resources (both residues and energy crops) without  disruption of food and forest resources ranges from 80 –  170 exajoules a year by 2050, and only part of this is  realistically and economically feasible. In addition, some  climate models rely on biomass-based carbon capture  and storage, an unproven technology, to achieve negative  emissions and to buy some time during the first half of  the century.  Some liquid biofuels such as corn-based ethanol,  mainly for transport, may aggravate rather than  ameliorate carbon emissions on a life-cycle basis. Second  generation biofuels, based on ligno-cellulosic feedstocks  – such as straw, bagasse, grass and wood – hold the  promise of sustainable production that is high-yielding  and emit low levels of greenhouse gases, but these are  still in the R & D stage.

    In the context of using biomass, which of the following is/are the characteristic/characteristics of the sustainable production of biofuel?

    1. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could 
    meet all the primary energy requirements of the world by 2050
    2. Biomass as a fuel for power generation does not necessarily disrupt food and forest resources
    3. Biomass as a fuel for power generation could help in achieving negative emissions, given certain nascent technologies

    Select the correct answer using the code given 

    Options :-

    1. 1 and 2 only

    2. 3 only

    3. 2 and 3 only

    4. 1, 2 and 3

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