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     EduGorilla 
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    Accountability, or the lack of it, in governance generally,  and civil services, in particular, is a major factor  underlying the deficiencies in governance and public  administration. Designing an effective framework for  accountability has been a key element of the reform  agenda. A fundamental issue is whether civil services  should be accountable to the political executive of the  day or to society at large. In other words, how should  internal and external accountability be reconciled?  Internal accountability is sought to be achieved by  internal performance monitoring, official supervision by  bodies like the–Central–Vigilance Commission–and–  Comptroller and Auditor– General, and judicial review  of executive decisions. Articles 311 and 312 of the Indian  Constitution provide job security and safeguards to the  civil services, especially the All India Services. The  framers of the Constitution had envisaged that provision  of these safeguards would result in a civil service that is  not totally subservient to the political executive but will  have the strength to function in larger public interest.  The need to balance internal and external accountability  is thus built into the Constitution. The issue is where to  draw the line. Over the years, the emphasis seems to have  tilted in favour of greater internal accountability of the  civil services to the political leaders of the day who in  turn are expected to be externally accountable to the  society at large through the election process. This system  for seeking accountability to society has not worked out,  and has led to several adverse consequences for  governance.  Some special measures can be considered for  improving accountability in civil services. Provisions of  articles 311 and 312 should be reviewed and laws and  regulations framed to ensure external accountability of  civil services. The proposed Civil Services Bill seeks to  address some of these requirements. The respective roles  of professional civil services and the political executive  should be defined so that professional managerial  functions and management of civil services are  depoliticized. For this purpose, effective statutory civil  service boards should be created at the centre and in the  states. Decentralization and devolution of authority to  bring government and decision making closer to the  people also helps to enhance accountability.

    Which one of the following is the essential message implied by this passage?

    Options :-

    1. Civil services are not accountable to the society they are serving

    2. Educated and enlightened persons are not taking up political leadership

    3. The framers of the Constitution did not envisage the problems being encountered by the civil services

    4. There is a need and scope for reforms to improve the accountability of civil services 

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