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     EduGorilla 
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    निर्देश : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

    Paragraph 1. In many cases, diesel generators have become a lifeline for primary health centres, their constant hum the only assurance of sustained electricity to doctors and patients. At the Sholurmattam primary health centre in the hills of Kotagiri in the southern state of Tamil Nadu, Dr Sethu Raman has spent the last two weeks trying to get a generator fixed. Catering to a population of more than 18,000, the centre has had to fall back on emergency torch lights to make sure babies are delivered and vaccines are safe, all the while trying to get its power restored. “The complaints have been made, but nobody has found the time yet to trek up to the the hills and fix the problem,” Raman said. “I’m even willing to spend my own money to get it running because without electricity, the care I provide will never be optimum.” Many states, including Chhattisgarh and Tripura, have already set up small-scale solar systems for their health centres, each with different specifications and at a high cost.
    Paragraph 2. As you have a longer period to save, time works for you in the form of Compounding. The earlier you start, the better advantage you get of the power of compounding. Illustration: A person, aged 25, starts to save Rs. 5,000 per month. Assuming the average rate of return earned is 12% & compounding annually, he is expected to accumulate a corpus of Rs. 2.75 crore by the time he retires at 60 years of age. Now had he decided to start saving at the age of 35, he would be required to save Rs. 16,000 approximately per month to accumulate the same amount. In the above illustration, we have assumed that the average rate of return earned during the period of 35 years, starting from the age of 25, is 12%. Now the question arises what if he is not able to earn the return of 12% or he earns lower than the expected return of 12%? If he earns less than 12%, say 10%, he will be able to accumulate a corpus of Rs 1.71 crore only. The difference of 2% in return reduces your corpus by almost Rs 1.04 crore. This is in the case of the pre- retirement scenario when you are working, earning a salary and saving for the retirement while maintaining a certain lifestyle. A smaller corpus available at the time of retirement will impact the standard of living you want to maintain in the post retirement period and your ability to pay high health expenses in old age. Similarly, assuming life expectancy on the lower side is also dangerous. A person retiring today with a corpus of Rs. 3 crores with an expected life expectancy of 20 years can expect to withdraw an amount equivalent to purchasing power (i.e. inflation-indexed nominal amount) of Rs. 1.5 Lacs every month for the next 20 years.    
    Paragraph 3. “Whatever app people use, they are willing to pay for the content they want. ‘Connected Life’, Kantar TNS’s annual study of connectivity found that 46% of Indian respondents consume user-generated content. And much like shelling out for D2H services, consumers are not averse to paying for freemium apps that give them the kind of content they want. Verma explains, “As with any service, people tend to migrate, but they don’t mind paying if they like your content. nexGTV has 4 million active users and 1.5 million paid subscriptions per month. The 25.million user base has been built over five years.” This in turn shows investors that it’s a lucrative market.
    Paragraph 4. The advantage of such early burning was that the fires were less intense and there was less plant material that could burn in the heat of the summer months. Colonial baggage-To understand why the forest administration is so opposed to fire we need to look at colonial practice. The history of colonial forest protection begins with the control of fire, which the British saw as a primitive local practice that had to be banned. Fires were also believed to threaten timber operations that were at the heart of the colonial economic effort. Fire was banned and stories about its destructive consequences were circulated to impress urban and elite society of its adverse impacts on animals, plants and people. These stories have held such sway that even today the mere mention of a forest fire makes us react with shock. Stephen Pyne writing on the history of fire in Indian forests says that as a result of the training that they have received from Europe, Indian scientists ‘continue to distrust burning, as though it were still a stigma of primitiveness, a leprosy on the landscape’. Today Soligas feel alienated from the BRT forest: “They let our stomachs burn,” Madegowda of Monukai podu tells us.  
    Paragraph 5. Even the term ‘Indian’ was a taxonomical category that straddled race, geography, religions, much as Europeans described themselves: an assemblage of complementary identities. By the 18th century, a circulating print economy actively showcased India via art, painting, and anthropological curiosities that were often reinterpretations of an earlier generation of European experiences. As the European political conquest expanded, we begin to intuit the early stirrings of racialist theories of 19th century colonialism. Perhaps unsurprisingly, Europeans begin to venerate a constructed Indian past, marked by great glory (however, a grandeur only comparable to Rome and Greece), while they are contemptuous of the contemporaneous realities of the Indian present. Reading Subrahmanyam’s work that distils a lifetime of his learning is a welcome antidote to the glib and often self-righteous liberal readings of the Indian past as an argumentative proto-democracy, as well as a reminder that the ‘sons of the soil’ who form trenchant theories of India’s history ironically rely on the hard-earned knowledge and prejudices of foreigners. The past, we realise, is not even a thing, but a kaleidoscope of competing interpretations with histories of their own.


    According to paragraph 5, which of the following ways through which a circulating print economy actively showcased India?

    Options :-

    1. Painting
    2. Arts
    3. Building schools
    4. Both A and B
    5. None of these
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